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Tsinghua Science and Technology  2019, Vol. 24 Issue (06): 750-762    doi: 10.26599/TST.2018.9010144
A Deep Adaptive Learning Method for Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Using Immunity
Yuling Tian*, Xiangyu Liu
∙ Yuling Tian and Xiangyu Liu are with the College of Information and Computer, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030000, China. E-mail:
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The extraction of rolling bearing fault features using traditional diagnostic methods is not sufficiently comprehensive and the features are often chosen subjectively and depend on human experience. In this paper, an improved deep convolutional process is used to extract a set of features adaptively. The hidden multi-layer feature of deep convolutional neural networks is also exploited to improve the extraction features. A deterministic detection of low-confidence samples is performed to ensure the reliability of the recognition results and to decrease the rate of false positives by evaluating the diagnosis of the deep convolutional neural network. To improve the efficiency of the continuous learning elements of the rolling bearing fault diagnosis, a clone learning strategy based on cloning and mutation operations is proposed. The experimental results show that the proposed deep convolutional neural network model can extract multiple rolling bearing fault features, improve classification and detection accuracy by reducing the false positive rate when diagnosing rolling bearing faults, and accelerate learning efficiency when using low-confidence rolling bearing fault samples.

Key wordsdeep learning      fault diagnosis      feature extraction      clone selection strategy     
Received: 27 November 2018      Published: 20 June 2019
Corresponding Authors: Yuling Tian   
About author:

Xiangyu Liu is a PhD candidate of Information and Computer Department, Taiyuan University of Technology, China. His research interests include deep learning and fault diagnosis.

Cite this article:

Yuling Tian, Xiangyu Liu. A Deep Adaptive Learning Method for Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Using Immunity. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 2019, 24(06): 750-762.

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Fig. 1 Self-adaptive DCNN fault diagnosis model.
Training batchesConvolution layer numberNumber of feature mapsConvolution kernel sizeTraining set accuracy (%)Test set accuracy (%)
Number selection of feature maps50430×50×80×1003×399.8798.86
Selection of convolution kernel size504100×80×50×303×399.8399.19
Selection of training batch size403100×80×504×499.9498.76
Table 1 Main parameters selection of network model.
Image size (pixel)Network layer numbersConvolution kernel sizePooling sizeTrain set accuracy (%)Test set accuracy (%)
Table 2 Time domain signal size selection.
Image size (pixel)Network layer numbersConvolution kernel sizePooling sizeTrain set accuracy (%)Test set accuracy (%)
Table 3 Frequency domain signal size selection.
Fig. 2 DCNN time domain model.
Layer numberNumber of feature mapsFeature map sizeLayer numberNumber of feature mapsFeature map size
Table 4 Time domain signal model structure.
Layer numberNumber of feature mapsFeature map sizeLayer numberNumber of feature mapsFeature map size
Table 5 Frequency domain signal model structure.
Fig. 3 Normal state time signal.
Fig. 4 Normal state time and frequency domain signal sample.
Fig. 5 Slight rolling element fault time domain signal.
Fig. 6 Slight rolling element fault time and frequency domain signal sample.
Fig. 7 Slight inner ring fault time domain signal.
Fig. 8 Slight inner ring fault time and frequency domain signal sample.
Fig. 9 Slight outer ring fault time domain signal.
Fig. 10 Slight outer ring fault time and frequency domain signal sample.
Technical methodTrain set accuracy (%)Test set accuracy (%)
Table 6 Comparison of DCNN and feature extraction techniques.
Algorithm modelInput dataNetwork layer numberTrain set accuracy (%)Test set accuracy (%)
Table 7 Comparison of DCNN and DBN.
Algorithm modelInner ring fault (%)Outer ring fault (%)Rolling element fault (%)Severe inner ring fault (%)Severe outer ring fault (%)Severe rolling element fault (%)
Table 8 Train set accuracy for various fault types.
Algorithm modelInner ring fault (%)Outer ring fault (%)Rolling element fault (%)Severe inner ring fault (%)Severe outer ring fault (%)Severe rolling element fault (%)
Table 9 Test set accuracy of various fault types.
Fault typeTrain set (%)Test set (%)Test false positive rate (%)Test missed rate (%)
Sel-DCNNKnown fault99.9299.420.280.57
Unknown faultnone98.322.161.85
DCNN-TDKnown fault99.8398.192.671.89
DCNN-FDKnown fault99.9199.380.340.72
Table 10 Sel-DCNN model diagnosis results.
Fig. 11 Comparison of accuracy of identification.
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