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Tsinghua Science and Technology  2021, Vol. 26 Issue (4): 496-504    doi: 10.26599/TST.2020.9010013
    
Effect of Chloride Ion Concentrations on Luminescence Peak Blue Shift of Light-Emitting Diode Using Anti-Solvent Extraction of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Perovskite
Baoyu Liu(),Xiaoping Zou*(),Dan Chen(),Taoran Liu(),Yuhua Zuo*(),Jun Zheng(),Zhi Liu(),Buwen Cheng()
Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory for Sensor, MOE Key Laboratory for Modern Measurement and Control Technology, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Beijing 100101, China.
State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China.
Center of Materials Science and Optoelectronics Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.
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Abstract  

In recent years, Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes (PeLEDs) have received considerable attention in academia. However, with the development of PeLEDs, commercial applications of full-color PeLED technology are largely limited by the progress of blue-emitting devices, due to the uncontrollably accurate composition, unstable properties, and low luminance. In this article, we add Cesium chloride (CsCl) to the quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) perovskite precursor solution and achieve the relatively blue shifts of PeLED emission peak by introducing chloride ions for photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL). We also found that the introduction of chlorine ions can make quasi-2D perovskite films thinner with smoother surface of 0.408 nm. It is interesting that the EL peaks and intensities of PeLED are adjustable under different driving voltages in high concentration chlorine-added perovskite devices, and different processes of photo-excited, photo-quenched, and photo-excited occur sequentially with the increasing driving voltage. Our work provides a path for demonstrating full-color screens in the future.



Key wordsPerovskite Light-Emitting Diodes (PeLEDs)      quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D)      chloride ions      blue shifts     
Received: 31 March 2020      Published: 12 January 2021
Fund:  National Key Research and Development Program of China(2018YFB2200103);National Natural Science Foundation of China(61875186);Project of the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing(Z160002);Key Research Projects of Beijing Information Science and Technology University (BISTU)(2019-22);Beijing Key Laboratory for Sensors of BISTU(2019CGKF007)
Corresponding Authors: Xiaoping Zou,Yuhua Zuo     E-mail: liubaoyu0214@163.com;xpzou2020@163.com;chendan1988@semi.ac.cn;trliu@semi.ac.cn;yhzuo@semi.ac.cn;zhengjun@semi.ac.cn;zhiliu@semi.ac.cn;cbw@semi.ac.cn
About author: Baoyu Liu received the BS degree from Hebei University in 2017. He is now a master student at Beijing Information Science and Technology University. His main research interests include perovskite materials and light emitting diodes of perovskite.|Xiaoping Zou received the BS degree from Chengdu Radio Engineering College, China in 1983. In 1999, he received the PhD degree from Xi’an Jiaotong University, China. He worked as a visiting scholar for two years from 2002-2004 in the Department of Nano-technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST) at Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). He has been a professor at Beijing Information Science and Technology University since 2004. His current research interests include novel nano-optoelectronics materials and solar cell applications. He has authored or co-authored more than 70 peer-reviewed journal articles.|Dan Chen received the BS degree from Nanchang University, China in 2011, and the MEng degree from Beijing Information Science and Technology University, China in 2018. She is currently a PhD candidate at the Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Her main research interests include perovskite materials and devices, such as solar cells, LED, and laser.|Taoran Liu received the BS degree from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China in 2016. She is currently a PhD student in the Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. Her main research interests include perovskite light-emitting materials and devices and the reliability of Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs).|Yuhua Zuo received the BEng and MEng degrees from Tsinghua University, China in 1997 and 2000, respectively, and the PhD degree in microelectronics and optoelectronics from Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China in 2003. She is a professor in both the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences. She worked as a visiting scholar at the Department of Materials, University of California at Los Angeles for 8 months in 2016. She has extensive research expertise and a wide range of research interests in novel Si-based optoelectronics materials and devices, such as photodiodes, APDs, and solar cells.|Jun Zheng received the BS degree from Beijing Institue of Technology, China in 2006, and the PhD degree in physical electronics from Graduated University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China in 2011. He is now an associate researcher at the Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. His main research interest is silicon photonics, especially silicon-based materials and detectors.|Zhi Liu received the BS degree from Taiyuan University of Technology, China in 2009, and the PhD degree from the Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China in 2014. Since 2014, he has been with the Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China. His main research interest is silicon-based group IV material growth and silicon photonics. He has authored or co-authored more than 30 journal articles.|Buwen Cheng received the BS and MS degrees in condensed physics from Beijing Normal University, China in 1989 and 1992, respectively. In 2006, he received the PhD degree from the Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ISCAS), China. He joined the ISCAS in 1992. Since 2007, he has been a professor. His current research interests include growth of Si-based materials (such as SiGe, Ge, and GeSn) and device applications. He has authored or co-authored more than 150 journal articles and holds 15 patents.
Cite this article:

Baoyu Liu,Xiaoping Zou,Dan Chen,Taoran Liu,Yuhua Zuo,Jun Zheng,Zhi Liu,Buwen Cheng. Effect of Chloride Ion Concentrations on Luminescence Peak Blue Shift of Light-Emitting Diode Using Anti-Solvent Extraction of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Perovskite. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 2021, 26(4): 496-504.

URL:

http://tst.tsinghuajournals.com/10.26599/TST.2020.9010013     OR     http://tst.tsinghuajournals.com/Y2021/V26/I4/496

Fig. 1 Schematic procedure for manufacturing quasi-2D perovskite films by spin coating of precursor solutions and chlorobenzene.
SamplePEABrCsBrPbBr2CsClDMSO (mL)
0 mmol CsCl0.33 mmol0.33 mmol0.5 mmol-1.0
(66.70 mg)(70.27 mg)(183.5 mg)-
0.2 mmol CsCl0.33 mmol0.13 mmol0.5 mmol0.2 mmol1.0
(66.70 mg)(27.70 mg)(183.5 mg)(33.7 mg)
0.4 mmol CsCl0.33 mmol0.13 mmol0.5 mmol0.4 mmol2.5
(66.70 mg)(27.70 mg)(183.5 mg)(67.4 mg)
Table 1 Precursor solutions of perovskite for different compositions.
Fig. 2 Cross-sectional SEM and AFM images of the perovskite films. The roughness of the films is recorded on the left side of the images.
CharacterizationSampleFWHM (nm)
PL0 mmol CsCl32.27
0.2 mmol CsCl20.66
0.4 mmol CsCl24.09
EL0 mmol CsCl24.21
0.2 mmol CsCl24.68
0.4 mmol CsCl43.85
Table 2 Precursor solution of perovskite for different compositions.
Fig. 3 Quasi-2D perovskite PL with different concentrations of chloride ions.
Fig. 4 Structure of PeLED, (a) schematic illustration with the structure of Glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/ TPBi/LiF/Al and (b) SEM image of the cross-section of the LED device.
Fig. 5 EL of different chloride ions concentrations, (a) EL spectra of 0 mmol CsCl under different driving voltages, (b) EL spectra of 0.2 mmol CsCl under different driving voltages, (c) and (d) EL spectra of 0.4 mmol CsCl under different driving voltages.
Fig. 6 Dependence of the maximum intensity, luminance, and wavelength on the driving voltage.
Fig. 7 Corresponding coordinate of the CIE of the EL spectra of PeLEDs.
Fig. 8 Optoelectronic characteristics of the quasi-2D PeLEDs of different compositions, (a) EL spectra, (b) normalized EL spectra, (c) L-V curves of quasi-2D PeLEDs of different compositions, and (d) I-V curves of quasi-2D PeLEDs of different compositions.
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